The synthesis of a number of key enzymes (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, glycogen, etc.). Reduction of blood glucose due to the increase of intracellular transport, absorption and assimilation tissue enhancement, stimulation of lipogenesis, glikogenogeneza, speed reduction glucose production by the liver, and others.
The duration of action of insulin formulations is mainly due to absorption rate, which depends on several factors (e.g., dose , method and place of administration), and therefore the action equipoise for horses of insulin profile is subject to significant fluctuations, like different people, and at one and the same person.
profile action after subcutaneous injection (approximate figures): onset of action within 30 minutes, the maximum effect – between 1 and 3 hours duration – up to 8 hours.
Completeness beginning insulin absorption and the effect depends on the route of administration (subcutaneous, intramuscular) injection site (abdomen, thigh, buttocks), the dose (amount of injected insulin), insulin concentration in the formulation, etc. distributed in the body unevenly.; It does not cross the placental barrier and into breast milk. It destroyed insulinase mainly in the liver and kidneys. The half-life of a few minutes. Excreted by the kidneys (30-80%).
- Diabetes mellitus type 1.
- Diabetes mellitus type 2: stage of equipoise for horses resistance to oral hypoglycemic combination therapies), intercurrent illness
- Emergency conditions in patients with diabetes accompanied by decompensation of carbohydrate metabolism
- Increased individual sensitivity to insulin or any) w of the drug components
Dosing and Administration
Gensulin P is intended for subcutaneous, intramuscular and intravenous administration. The dose and route of administration determined by the physician individually in each case based on the level of blood glucose.
In average, the daily dose ranges from 0.5 to 1 IU / kg body weight (depending on the individual patient and blood glucose level).
The drug is administered 30 minutes before a meal or snack containing carbohydrates. Low insulin must correspond to the room.
In the monotherapy dose frequency is 3 times a day (if necessary – 5-6 times a day). At a daily dose greater than 0.6 IU / kg should be administered in 2 or more injections into different areas of the body.
Gensulin P generally administered subcutaneously into the anterior abdominal wall. Injections can be done as well in the thigh, buttock or the deltoid muscles of the shoulder region. It is necessary to change the injection site within the anatomical region to prevent the development of lipodystrophy. Intramuscular and intravenous Gensulin P can be administered only under medical supervision.
Gensulin P – short-acting insulin and is usually used in combination with intermediate-acting insulin (Gensulin H).
Side effects caused by the effect on carbohydrate metabolism : hypoglycemic state (pale skin, increased sweating, palpitations, tremor, hunger, excitement, paresthesia in equipoise for horses the mouth, headache). Severe hypoglycemia may lead to the development of hypoglycemic coma. Allergic reactions : seldom – skin rash, angioedema, rarely – anaphylactic shock. Local reactions : redness, swelling and itching at the injection site, with prolonged use – lipodystrophy at the injection site. Other – swelling , transient disturbances of refraction (usually at the beginning of therapy).
In case of overdose may develop hypoglycemia. Treatment : mild hypoglycemia, the patient can remove himself, taking into sugar or carbohydrate-rich foods. Therefore, patients with diabetes should always carry sugar, sweets, biscuits or sugary fruit juice. In severe cases, loss of consciousness of the patient, intravenous 40% dextrose; intramuscularly, subcutaneously, intravenously – glucagon. After regaining consciousness of the patient is recommended to take food rich in carbohydrates, to prevent recurrence of hypoglycemia.
The interaction with other drugs
There are a number of drugs that affect the demand for insulin. Hypoglycemic effect of insulin increase the oral hypoglycemic drugs, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, angiotensin-converting enzyme, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, non-selective beta-blockers. bromocriptine, octreotide, sulphonamides, anabolic steroids, getratsikliny. clofibrate, ketoconazole, mebendazole, pyridoxine, theophylline, cyclophosphamide. fenfluramine, lithium, drugs containing ethanol. Hypoglycemic effect of insulin impaired oral contraceptives, steroids. thyroid hormones, thiazide diuretics, heparin, tricyclic antidepressants, sympathomimetics, danazol, clonidine, calcium channel blockers, diazoxide, morphine, phenytoin, nicotine. Under the influence of reserpine and salicylates may as a weakening or strengthening of the drug.
Do not use Gensulin P, if it became cloudy, colored, or if solid particles are detected.
On the background of insulin therapy requires constant monitoring of blood equipoise for horses glucose levels. The causes of hypoglycemia than insulin overdose can be: the replacement of the drug, skipping meals, vomiting, diarrhea, increased physical activity, disease, reducing the need for insulin (human liver and kidneys, hypofunction of the adrenal cortex, pituitary or thyroid gland), change the injection site, as well as interaction with other drugs.
Incorrect dosage or interruption of insulin delivery, particularly in patients with type 1 diabetes, may lead to hyperglycaemia. Usually the first symptoms of hyperglycaemia develop gradually over several hours or days. These include the emergence of thirst, frequent urination, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, redness and dryness of the skin, dry mouth, loss of appetite, the smell of acetone in exhaled air. If left untreated, hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus type 1 can lead to life-threatening diabetic ketoacidosis.
The dose of insulin should be corrected with thyroid disorders, Addison’s disease, hypopituitarism, violations of liver and kidney function and diabetes in individuals older than 65 years.
insulin dose adjustment may also be required if the patient increases the intensity of physical activity or change the habitual diet.
Concomitant illness, especially infections and conditions accompanied by fever, increase the need for insulin.
the transition from one type of insulin to another should be under the control of blood glucose levels .
The drug lowers the tolerance to alcohol.
in connection with the possibility of precipitation of some catheters is not recommended to use the drug in insulin pumps.
Effects on ability to drive vehicles and management mechanisms
In connection with the primary purpose of insulin, changing its appearance or the presence of significant physical or mental stress, may reduce the ability to drive a car or to the management of a variety of mechanisms, as well as studies in other potentially hazardous activities that require attention and speed of mental and motor responses.
Injection 100 IU / ml in 10 ml glass vials and 3 ml cartridges. 1 bottle with instruction on the medical application is placed in a cardboard box. 5 placed in blister cartridges, and together with instructions for use placed in a cardboard box.
at temperatures between 2 and 8 ° C. Do not freeze. After opening the package, the drug store at temperatures above 25 ° C for 28 days in a dark place. Keep out of the reach of children. and testosterone hcg injections for weight loss reviews prostate cancer